There are two types of polio vaccines:
- inactivated (IPV), containing three types of killed poliovirus strains,
- live (OPV), containing three types of attenuated poliovirus strains.
The OPV vaccine containing live, attenuated virus types is administered orally in the form of drops. It causes intestinal and general immunity. It should not be given to people with reduced immunity. It can cause VAPP. It is thermolabile. In Poland, it is used in the calendar of vaccinations at the age of 6 as a booster dose.
The IPV vaccine contains three killed types of virus. It is a vaccine administered subcutaneously, or intramuscularly in the thigh or arm, depending on age. There are no contraindications for its administration. It does not trigger VAPP and is thermostable. In Poland, the IPV vaccine is administered, according to the vaccination schedule, three times – in 3-4 months of life, at the turn of the 5th and 6th month and between 16 and 18 months of age.
Both types of vaccines, OPV and IPV, are used to actively immunize children and adults. Properly vaccinated adults do not require additional immunization against poliomyelitis. Consideration should be given to the transplantation of persons traveling to the endemic areas of this disease (Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan), and people working in the laboratory where they are exposed to polyviruses